CU may have negative consequences if it gets out of control. Associations were tested using hurdle and negative binomial regression models.
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At least monthly CU was reported by CU was associated positively with post-secondary schooling vs. French-speakinghomosexuality, bisexuality vs. FCU was associated positively with homosexuality, bisexuality, no or more than one sexual partner, dysfunctional coping except denialand all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with age, being in a relationship, and sociability. PCU was associated positively with bisexuality, four or more sexual partners, dysfunctional coping, and all personality traits except sociability, but negatively with German-speaking and sociability.
CU should be viewed in light of its associations with sociodemographic, sexual, and psychological factors. However, most of the studies included in that review used small or non-representative samples. Different theoretical frameworks have led to different conceptualizations and terminology, e.
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To encompass all the nuances of the concept, this paper uses the term problematic cybersex use PCU. PCU refers to the excessive and uncontrolled use of cybersex leading to serious social, personal, and work problems, associated with symptoms similar to those of other addictions, i.
Prevalence rates of PCU range from 5. studies indicated that CU and PCU were associated with a wide variety of sexual and sociodemographic variables. CU was also associated with age. Prevalence rates were found to increase from 10 to 17 years old Wolak et al.
As with substance-use disorders, such as alcohol-use disorder and cannabis-use disorder e. On one hand, cybersex is often used for pleasure-oriented purposes, such as sexual gratification, entertainment, and enhancing arousal. Grubbs, Wright, et al.
This supports that sensation seeking may predispose individuals to using cybersex for pleasure-oriented purposes. On the other hand, cybersex is also often used for coping and mood management purposes Grubbs, Wright, et al. In line with this proposition, several studies have shown that not only stress, frustration, and relieving boredom are often motives for CU, but also conditions associated with negative affects, such as depressive symptoms e.
Based on these findings, one might expect individuals using dysfunctional coping strategies or with personality traits linked to negative affectivity to be prone to CU and PCU. However, the review by Grubbs, Wright, et al. Nevertheless, three recent studies have reported such associations.
In addition, Egan and Parmar as well as Shimoni, Dayan, Cohen, and Weinstein showed ificant positive associations between CU and high neuroticism. Thus, although the associations between personality traits linked to pleasure-oriented purposes and CU and PCU have been supported by several convergent sources, there is little evidence supporting associations between CU and PCU and dysfunctional coping strategies and personality traits linked to negative affectivity.
studies have shown that CU and PCU were associated with a wide range of sociodemographic, sexual, and psychological factors. However, these studies are still scarce and are limited because most of them used small convenience samples. This study aimed to overcome these limitations using a large, non-selective sample of young Swiss men to estimate the prevalence rates of CU, FCU, and PCU and explore their associations with several sociodemographic, sexual, and psychological variables.
With regard to sociodemographic and sexual variables, we hypothesize that high level of education, being single, non-heterosexual sexual orientation, more than one sexual partner will be positively associated with CU, FCU, and PCU, whereas age will be negatively associated. With regard to psychological variables, we expect positive associations of dysfunctional coping, personality traits related to pleasure-seeking orientations, and negative affectivity with CU, FCU, and PCU.
Between August and Novemberall young men reporting to the recruitment centers of Lausanne French-speakingWindisch, and Mels German-speaking were invited to participate in the study. A total of 7, gave their written consent. Full information on enrollment procedures and the study in general have been reported ly Gmel et al.
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A total of 5, men Due to missing values for at least one variable of interest, respondents 3. The final sample for analysis comprised 5, participants Mean participant age was There were 3, A total of 3. Participants were considered cybersex users if they were more than just sporadic users, because sporadic use is assumed to be relatively harmless. For non-users, the FCU variable was coded 0.
Since there is no validated cut-off for the ISST, PCU was not conceptualized as a dichotomous disorder taxonbut rather as a dimensional behavior i. Two categorical variables, reflecting the endorsement of a at least one symptom and b at least three symptoms, were also created for descriptive purposes. Sociodemographic and sexual variables included age, linguistic region French-speaking, German-speakinghighest level of education achieved primary schooling, vocational training, and post-secondary schoolingof sexual partners in the 12 months 0, 1, 2—3, 4 or morebeing in a relationship married or living with a partner vs.
Neuroticism—anxiety, aggression—hostility related to negative affectsociability related to pleasure-oriented purposes personality traits were assessed using the French and German versions of the cross-cultural, shortened form of the Zuckerman—Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire Aluja et al.
Each trait was measured using 10 true or false statements, and the possible score of endorsed statements ranged from 0— Scores ranging from 1 to 5 were computed by averaging responses to the eight items.
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Then, French and German versions were back-translated by bilingual persons of the team. Discrepancies between the original versions and the translated versions were discussed until a consensus was found.
Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. FCU was analyzed using Hurdle models, which were preferred over the more habitual Poisson, negative binomial NBor zero-inflated count models because the same model allows an analysis of both cybersex users versus non-users and the FCU among cybersex users. In Hurdle models, the binary part — differentiating between non-zero and zero observations i.
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Several different count distributions [i. Model 1 tested the bivariate associations of each predictor variable, whereas Model 2 tested the associations of each predictor variable, adjusted simultaneously for sociodemographic and sexual variables, that is, highest level of education, linguistic region, being in a relationship, sexual orientation, of sexual partners, and age.
Associations were reported as odds ratios ORsfor the first parts of the Hurdle models analyzing cybersex users versus non-users. To enable a comparison of the strength of associations, continuous predictor variables were z -standardized i. About Cybersex users reported a mean 9. More than half of cybersex users In Hurdle models, post-secondary schooling vs.
As opposed to a heterosexual orientation, bisexual and homosexual orientations were ificantly associated with higher odds of CU and higher FCU. Reporting more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months vs. On the contrary, reporting zero sexual partners was ificantly associated with higher FCU but not with CU.
Dysfunctional coping strategies and all the personality trait variables except denial were ificantly associated with CU and FCU. Specifically, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, neuroticism—anxiety, aggression—hostility, and sensation seeking were ificantly associated with higher odds of CU and higher FCU.
Adjustment Model 2 did not alter the .
Model 2 is adjusted for highest level of education, linguistic region, being in a relationship, sexual orientation, as well as of sexual partners and age. French-speaking was ificantly associated with lower PCU Table 3.
Bisexual orientation vs. Reporting four or more sexual partners in the past 12 months vs.
Regarding the associations of psychological factors, all the personality traits tested for and all the dysfunctional coping variables were ificantly and positively associated with PCU, except the sociability trait, which exhibited a ificant negative association. Adjustment Model 2 did not alter these. IRR: incidence rate ratio; CI: confidence interval.
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The month prevalence of at least monthly CU was This high rate, compared with other studies, may reflect both an age and cohort effect; CU is most prevalent during emerging adulthood Daneback et al. This may also reflect cultural differences. Although the prevalence of CU was high, more than half of cybersex users did not endorse any PCU statements. This finding is in line with the proposition of Cooper et al.
One potential explanation is that more educated individuals vs.
Interestingly, compared with French-speaking participants, although German-speaking participants reported less PCU, they were more likely to report CU. One potential explanation is that CU may be more socially accepted in the German-speaking region than in the French-speaking region. If so, German-speaking individuals may be more inclined to disclose their CU, but perceive their CU as less problematic. In addition, differences in the understanding of the questions may exist between French- and German-speaking participants.
Further research is needed to replicate and better understand this finding. Older vs.
As Daneback et al. No ificant association was found between age and PCU. Possibly, the narrow age range of participants in the present study may be insufficient to capture age-related differences in PCU. In line with the of studies Ballester-Arnal et al.